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    April 8, 2004

    EMPLOYMENT TRENDS IN STATE GOVERNMENT, FY1966-FY2003

    EMPLOYMENT TRENDS IN STATE GOVERNMENT, FY1966-FY2003

    report 336
    In Brief
    This study examines several dimensions of change in the
    State of Michigan’s classified workforce. The Michigan
    Department of Civil Service defines classified employees
    as those under the jurisdiction of the state’s Civil Service
    Commission, including full-time, part-time, seasonal, and
    intermittent employees. Efforts were made to obtain data
    on personal services contracts to determine if outsourcing
    or privatization of state functions has changed significantly
    and contributed to the changes in the numbers of state
    employees. Unfortunately, data are not available over a
    long period of time and the existing data do not include
    the number of external employees contracted to perform
    state work.
    In some cases, the data contained in this report date from
    FY1966, directly following the reorganization of state government
    pursuant to Michigan’s Constitution of FY1963.
    The Department of Civil Service (MDCS) collected annual
    average data on classified employment levels for each
    department culminating in Annual Workforce Reports, first
    published by the MDCS in FY1980. The time periods
    chosen for the analysis in this study closely conform to those
    available from Workforce Reports. Characteristics of the
    workforce such as gender, ethnicity, and union membership
    are examined to determine the nature of changes occurring
    during the period for which data are available. The
    analysis also examines trends in the base payroll for classified
    employees and the costs of fringe benefits and taxes
    paid by the state as an employer. Included in this section of
    the report are data compiled by the Department of Civil
    Service on the relationship between compensation for employees
    and total state government spending.
    Scope and Definitions
    From FY1966 to FY2004, Michigan’s state civil service
    workforce experienced considerable fluctuation in both size
    and composition. The overall number of state employees
    rose steadily from around 36,000 employees in FY1965 to
    its peak of nearly 70,000 full-time equivalent employees in
    FY1980. This period of expansion was followed by a modest
    downward trend, resulting in the current employment
    level of approximately 55,000 in FY2003. The overall decline
    in the state workforce after FY1980 belies increases in
    the areas of state government pertaining to the environment,
    safety and defense, and corrections. The most striking increase
    has been in the Department of Corrections, where
    employment increased from 5 percent of the state’s workforce
    in FY1966 to 7 percent in FY1980, swelling to 31 percent
    in FY2003. Human services employment increased from
    46 percent of the state workforce in FY1966 to a high of 49
    percent in FY1980, only to decline to 28 percent in FY2003.
    Corresponding to the relative growth or decline of departments,
    specific types of classified workers have become either more or
    less prevalent. Protective Services employees, the majority of
    which are affiliated with the Department of Corrections, have
    increased from around 5,000 in FY1980 to more than 13,000
    in FY2003. By contrast, levels of paraprofessionals and office/
    clerical staff have both dropped to less than half their FY1980
    levels of 17,000 and 15,000, respectively.
    In addition to fluctuations in the size and departmental
    affiliation of the state workforce, the proportion of minorities
    in the state workforce has generally increased. The level
    of combined minority employment currently rests at approximately
    23 percent of the overall workforce. Though
    FY2003 levels of minority employment are higher than in
    FY1980 (20 percent), current figures mark a decline from a
    high of 25 percent seen in FY1989. The overall percentage
    of women in the state classified workforce has declined since
    FY1980 from almost 54 percent of the workforce to 51
    percent in FY2003. However, if one disregards the rapid
    increase in corrections employment, which consists overwhelmingly
    of males, the proportion of female state employees
    has risen from 56 to 59 percent of the workforce.
    Finally, expenditures on classified employment have dropped
    gradually to 10 percent of state spending in FY2003, down
    from 17 percent in FY1982.
     

    EMPLOYMENT TRENDS IN STATE GOVERNMENT, FY1966-FY2003

    EMPLOYMENT TRENDS IN STATE GOVERNMENT, FY1966-FY2003

    report 336
    In Brief
    This study examines several dimensions of change in the
    State of Michigan’s classified workforce. The Michigan
    Department of Civil Service defines classified employees
    as those under the jurisdiction of the state’s Civil Service
    Commission, including full-time, part-time, seasonal, and
    intermittent employees. Efforts were made to obtain data
    on personal services contracts to determine if outsourcing
    or privatization of state functions has changed significantly
    and contributed to the changes in the numbers of state
    employees. Unfortunately, data are not available over a
    long period of time and the existing data do not include
    the number of external employees contracted to perform
    state work.
    In some cases, the data contained in this report date from
    FY1966, directly following the reorganization of state government
    pursuant to Michigan’s Constitution of FY1963.
    The Department of Civil Service (MDCS) collected annual
    average data on classified employment levels for each
    department culminating in Annual Workforce Reports, first
    published by the MDCS in FY1980. The time periods
    chosen for the analysis in this study closely conform to those
    available from Workforce Reports. Characteristics of the
    workforce such as gender, ethnicity, and union membership
    are examined to determine the nature of changes occurring
    during the period for which data are available. The
    analysis also examines trends in the base payroll for classified
    employees and the costs of fringe benefits and taxes
    paid by the state as an employer. Included in this section of
    the report are data compiled by the Department of Civil
    Service on the relationship between compensation for employees
    and total state government spending.
    Scope and Definitions
    From FY1966 to FY2004, Michigan’s state civil service
    workforce experienced considerable fluctuation in both size
    and composition. The overall number of state employees
    rose steadily from around 36,000 employees in FY1965 to
    its peak of nearly 70,000 full-time equivalent employees in
    FY1980. This period of expansion was followed by a modest
    downward trend, resulting in the current employment
    level of approximately 55,000 in FY2003. The overall decline
    in the state workforce after FY1980 belies increases in
    the areas of state government pertaining to the environment,
    safety and defense, and corrections. The most striking increase
    has been in the Department of Corrections, where
    employment increased from 5 percent of the state’s workforce
    in FY1966 to 7 percent in FY1980, swelling to 31 percent
    in FY2003. Human services employment increased from
    46 percent of the state workforce in FY1966 to a high of 49
    percent in FY1980, only to decline to 28 percent in FY2003.
    Corresponding to the relative growth or decline of departments,
    specific types of classified workers have become either more or
    less prevalent. Protective Services employees, the majority of
    which are affiliated with the Department of Corrections, have
    increased from around 5,000 in FY1980 to more than 13,000
    in FY2003. By contrast, levels of paraprofessionals and office/
    clerical staff have both dropped to less than half their FY1980
    levels of 17,000 and 15,000, respectively.
    In addition to fluctuations in the size and departmental
    affiliation of the state workforce, the proportion of minorities
    in the state workforce has generally increased. The level
    of combined minority employment currently rests at approximately
    23 percent of the overall workforce. Though
    FY2003 levels of minority employment are higher than in
    FY1980 (20 percent), current figures mark a decline from a
    high of 25 percent seen in FY1989. The overall percentage
    of women in the state classified workforce has declined since
    FY1980 from almost 54 percent of the workforce to 51
    percent in FY2003. However, if one disregards the rapid
    increase in corrections employment, which consists overwhelmingly
    of males, the proportion of female state employees
    has risen from 56 to 59 percent of the workforce.
    Finally, expenditures on classified employment have dropped
    gradually to 10 percent of state spending in FY2003, down
    from 17 percent in FY1982.
     

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